From PMDD Epidemiology, Politics, and Treatment to PME Epidemiology and Differentiation from PMDD, the following is a list of recommended reading for mental health, gynecologists, and other health care providers. These scientific papers are peer-reviewed and recommended by the IAPMD Clinical Advisory Board to improve provider understanding and patient outcomes.
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Premenstrual Disorders: A Primer and Research Agenda for Psychologists
The purpose of this article is to clarify how psychologists’ strengths can be readily applied to advance scientific knowledge and improve patient care in premenstrual disorders. In order to increase psychologist involvement in this emerging field, this article includes a primer on premenstrual disorders such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and premenstrual exacerbation (PME) of underlying disorders.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Epidemiology and Treatment
Up-to-Date review that summarizes the state of the scientific knowledge about PMDD. Hantsoo, L., & Epperson, C. N. (2015). Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: epidemiology and treatment. Current psychiatry reports, 17(11), 87.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Evidence for a New Category for DSM-5
Review that summarizes the epidemiology evidence for the disorder prior to its inclusion in DSM-5. Epperson, C. N., Steiner, M., Hartlage, S. A., Eriksson, E., Schmidt, P. J., Jones, I., & Yonkers, K. A. (2012). Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: evidence for a new category for DSM-5. American Journal of Psychiatry.
Addressing concerns about the inclusion of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in DSM-5
Systematic review and rebuttal of articles that challenge the necessity of making PMDD a full diagnosis. Addresses sociopolitical/feminist concerns about the diagnosis. Hartlage, S. A., Breaux, C. A., & Yonkers, K. A. (2013). Addressing Concerns About the Inclusion of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in DSM-5. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 75(1), 1-478.
Premenstrual Exacerbation of Depressive Disorders In a Community-Based Sample in the United States
Study finding that 60% of women with a depressive disorder showed premenstrual exacerbation of symptoms. Hartlage, S. A., Brandenburg, D. L., & Kravitz, H. M. (2004). Premenstrual exacerbation of depressive disorders in a community-based sample in the United States. Psychosomatic medicine, 66(5), 698-706.
Differentiating Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder From Premenstrual Exacerbations of Other Disorders: A Methods Dilemma
Excellent paper discussing methods for differentiating PMDD from PME. Hartlage, S. A., & Gehlert, S. (2001). Differentiating premenstrual dysphoric disorder from premenstrual exacerbations of other disorders: A methods dilemma. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 8(2), 242-253.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Initial Oral Contraceptives for the Treatment of PMDD: Effective But Not Enough
In the majority of larger-scale studies, once the placebo effect is accounted for, the percentage of women who respond to SSRIs or COCs is actually less than the percentage of women who do not respond at all. Halbreich, U. (2008). Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Initial Oral Contraceptives for the Treatment of PMDD: Effective But Not Enough. CNS Spectrums, 13(7), 566-572. doi:10.1017/S1092852900016849
The effectiveness of GnRHa with and without ‘add-back’ therapy in treating premenstrual syndrome: a meta analysis
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists analogues (GnRHa) are an example of a group of drugs that suppress ovarian function, which is believed to be the trigger for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder. This paper presents a meta-analysis (a combined analysis of many existing controlled studies) that demonstrates a large benefit of GnRH agonists for symptoms of PMDD, both with and without hormone replacement.
Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of perimenopausal depression: summary and recommendations
There is a new appreciation of the perimenopause as a window of vulnerability for the development of both depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes. However, clinical recommendations on how to identify, characterize and treat clinical depression are lacking. To address this gap, an expert panel was convened to systematically review the published literature and develop guidelines on the evaluation and management of perimenopausal depression.
Hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy for severe premenstrual syndrome
When first-line medical treatments fail and a patient consents to it, a hysterectomy may be a suitable course of action. This paper provides evidence that TAH/BSO is a cure for severe PMS/PMDD.
The ESC/E(Z) complex, an effector of response to ovarian steroids, manifests an intrinsic difference in cells from women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Cells grown from individuals with PMDD have an abnormal profile of gene expression in areas related to hormone processing. Dubey, N., Hoffman, J. F., Schuebel, K., Yuan, Q., Martinez, P. E., Nieman, L. K., ... & Goldman, D. (2017). The ESC/E (Z) complex, an effector of response to ovarian steroids, manifests an intrinsic difference in cells from women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Molecular psychiatry, 22(8), 1172.
Exposure to a change in ovarian steroid levels but not continuous stable levels triggers PMDD symptoms following ovarian suppression
Those with PMDD have a negative emotional reaction to normal changes in estrogen and progesterone, but luteal levels of estrogen and progesterone no longer cause symptoms once they have been stable for a month. Schmidt, P. J., Martinez, P. E., Nieman, L. K., Koziol, D. E., Thompson, K. D., Schenkel, L., ... & Rubinow, D. R. (2017). Premenstrual dysphoric disorder symptoms following ovarian suppression: triggered by change in ovarian steroid levels but not continuous stable levels. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(10), 980-989.
Lack of effect of induced menses on symptoms in women with premenstrual syndrome
Symptoms of PMDD are caused by the hormonal events occurring in the early luteal phase, not the late luteal phase. Schmidt, P. J., Nieman, L. K., Grover, G. N., Muller, K. L., Merriam, G. R., & Rubinow, D. R. (1991). Lack of effect of induced menses on symptoms in women with premenstrual syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine,324(17), 1174-1179.
5α-Reductase Inhibition Prevents the Luteal Phase Increase in Plasma Allopregnanolone Levels and Mitigates Symptoms in Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
PMDD symptoms can be prevented by blocking the metabolism of progesterone to allopregnanolone. Martinez, P. E., Rubinow, D. R., Nieman, L. K., Koziol, D. E., Morrow, A. L., Schiller, C. E., ... & Schmidt, P. J. (2013). 5α-Reductase inhibition prevents the luteal phase increase in plasma allopregnanolone levels and mitigates symptoms in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology.
The steroid metabolome in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder during GnRH agonist-induced ovarian suppression: effects of estradiol and progesterone addback
Individuals with PMDD metabolize estrogen and progesterone normally. Nguyen, T. V., Reuter, J. M., Gaikwad, N. W., Rotroff, D. M., Kucera, H. R., Motsinger-Reif, A., ... & Schmidt, P. J. (2017). The steroid metabolome in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder during GnRH agonist-induced ovarian suppression: effects of estradiol and progesterone addback. Translational psychiatry, 7(8), e1193.
Differential behavioral effects of gonadal steroids in women with and in those without premenstrual syndrome
Those with PMDD have a negative emotional reaction to normal changes in estrogen and progesterone. Schmidt, P. J., Nieman, L. K., Danaceau, M. A., Adams, L. F., & Rubinow, D. R. (1998). Differential behavioral effects of gonadal steroids in women with and in those without premenstrual syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 338(4), 209-216.
Premenstrual Syndrome, Management (Green-top Guideline No. 48)
This guideline reviews the diagnosis, classification and management of premenstrual syndrome. In addition, the evidence for pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments is examined. Green LJ, O’Brien PMS, Panay N, Craig M on behalf of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Management of premenstrual syndrome. BJOG 2017; 124:e73–e105.